Guy Rider (en) [00:00:05] Ladies and gentlemen and I think on this very fraternal occasion I can say Dear friends this is a very special moment of our centenary conference for a number of reasons I believe we have over the last two weeks received a whole series of heads of government heads of state high level visitors to our conference who have contributed enormously to the work of the conference. But today we have our last two invitees who are not ready invitees. They are people who are returning to their ILO home when I refer of course to the two previous directors general of the ILO Mr. Michel Anson and Mr. when some. I know we all want to welcome in the warmest possible way back to their ILO home. I would just ask you to consider one small fact from the. People on the podium before you. You have before you here because you said you began your mandate in 1989 if I'm not mistaken you have the three directors general who are responsible have been responsible for leading this organization for 30 years of its hundred year history. I find that quite a frightening prospect but it's a remarkable one you have here people who have led the organization for all of that proportion of its history. I think it's very important quite remarkable and very valuable moment to reflect together at the moment of the ILO's centenary on where the organization has come and in keeping with the centenary theme of the future of work where we think on the basis of the past history of the organization the organization is and must go in the future as we take up as I say this challenge of the future of work. So we're looking forward very very much to what I hope is gonna be a conversation between us. You have the three directors general you also have on my right hand side two other personalities who have marked the history of this organ of this tripartite organization. So right Trutmann who has was for many years the leader of the workers in this house and Daniel Fournier stereo author who led the employers and for a long time worked together as a social partnership of this house and when they we've heard from the directors general we're going to invite Saroyan Daniel to add their thoughts on this profound moment of reflection. So let's get started. Michele May I turn to you in the first instance you led the organization at a moment when the Cold War was coming to an end and we had to deal with that extraordinary change in the history of the organization because I think today it's difficult for some to understand how profoundly the Cold War marked the organization for a number of decades. And you had to manage the exit of the organization from its Cold War logic and into the first period of globalization that raised many challenges and I think many of us had to think very carefully about where the ILO was going. Your response was to lead the organization towards the adoption of the 1998 Declaration on Fundamental principles and rights at work which is very much still recognized as a landmark of the organization. I also remember you deploying I think they were called multidisciplinary teams at the time expanding the ILO's presence in offices around the world. And wondering what your memories are of that period. What do you think were the most important challenges at the time and how you see them from the perspective of our current circumstances. So we're very keen to listen to you. Michel Anson.
Michel Hanson (fr) [00:04:10] If he put him all day by I mean this song got without nerf is it ketamine. I mean the saw couple that got off just don't do that type of taunt busker catcalls and if I should be a debate I said I find you could be used and said I find that I get fired I find out more B put a capsule that can top most awesome guy OS Gen Y say. A senior to this I called him a hawkish missile that did not Gunny just your mortgage Deaconess it oxygen shifted my dear senior to do like to do any source of UCL. Do the mortgages assume the. It's just don't do that. Key all on card. More premium all the equivalent of what we know if free all scores of similar folks on more. They're not gonna just throw out our dash analogy today. They put me in charge more say the Alamo that is assumed the economy. Said that nobody per year would be prepared to be full force or the to of the market. It talks about backcourt kill assault or dodging nouvelle a deaconess at the National. A book would be commerce day ziti Ali did the divorce sweep when an egg did not get his ass read that analogy Twilight it'll pass could a fag look and he just shut down as as you cover sitar or teacup glue. Assume he competed TvT da Lord economic model Nouvel. You don't lose I won't see the peak. He knew d not know how to feed the nouvelle convulsion in his own memoir DNC said I know it would do you him low key radical FICO scores consider are short on gurneys I as another analogy Tyler said I funded I guess what he called it you no longer just shut our national guitar like a teen is spirit of a post social democrat would defeat last see Paolo. Parliament communist era of the third set the set block. Your article with more. The UK capital D will see the mostly by remote communist photoshopped gas sector. Would be worse off than on whether the results are these in the approved the official debt and organize asset our national debt. It'll fall off the exit organization. A dog like hot gas junkie to zip was the truth about me and our song. Dee dee dee dee dee dee dee joy. From the response. These are good these are short potholed nerdy Sadie Kelsey did you get a hold of all as we said nouvelle air. Tell us your novel is a squishy seats failed under Harper because we've had a call for you. I mean the socket that cut off a it it actually. The value of our default discharge more out all so key team wide and beyond the lab will keep pursuing kitted out n US departure.
Guy Rider (en) [00:07:23] Thank you very much. Welcome back. I'm sure to do some of the issues that you've raised. When some of you you became director general on the the end of mission on Sen's second mandate you came to the organization in 1999 and let us until 2012 and I think above all. I certainly remember the beginnings of your mandate because of the putting in place of the the decent work agenda something which I think has now become deeply imprinted in the mandate. It's the definition I think of the ILO's mandate these days. But you had to pick up then this accelerating process of globalization the issues that Michel had begin to grapple with the decent work agenda was in many ways a response to that. You led the organization through the early years of the century and of course you also had to confront the consequences of the the crack of 2008 the great crisis and of course the ILO found its way into the G 20 process at that time. So very much in the same lines as I asked Michel. What do you think were the you know the really important things that you had to address and how do you see them in the perspective of today's situation in our centenary.
Speaker [00:08:49] Well thank you. Thank you so much. Director General. First of all thank you for having us here. I think that this initiative is a is a very generous initiative is a very. People who have held this post before you and but also a very reminder as you were saying 30 years together of the fact that you know this institution through its director generals play a role which has been very important in simply servicing the trap the tripartite system. And it brings me to mind you was mentioning you know we we built on what was done before and I certainly build to what happened under Michele Henderson's period. But it makes me think that you know all of these director generals it's almost like of course where you you ended and you persist in battle. I don't know how you would say that in English.
Speaker [00:09:46] Well you know handle her hand over the baton but the baton has it has a big strength. There's not just any baton it's a baton full of values it's about full of history it's about that obliges you almost to to to follow what has been done before. And I think that Michelle's description of his period very much explains some of the things that that we that we did it was it was it was a moment in which we were coming out of the World Summit for Social Development that was 1985.
Speaker [00:10:22] And that was the first time there was an initiative that I presented the name of of the government of Chile in the United Nations I was the first Ambassador of of Chile after we ended the Pinochet dictatorship. I had been an exile but I was able to come back to to the country about seven years before we had the change.
Speaker [00:10:42] So I came there with two things in our mind first that we had been a sort of a guinea pig of neo liberalism because after the coup d'etat the whole Friedman policy was simply applied you know without democracy so you could do whatever you wanted so that our reaction to that was almost instinctive.
Speaker [00:11:04] And secondly that we wanted to make social issues a sort of a central part of all of our policies that is the that is the origin of the Social Summit. But in putting the social something together and this is of course before being coming here but it has a lot to do with the manner in which I looked at things. We proposed this and the secretary general was asked by a course to consult governments. He calls me in one day and he says Juan this is a great idea so I'm going to appoint you as my personal representative to consult with the governments and of course you consult of course but make sure you convince. So that was the mandate I had from the from the secretary general. Why am I seeing all of this. Because after that consultation what were the issues poverty employment and social cohesion social integration. That that's that that that that was a framework within which we you know I began my my my period here. And you mentioned decent work because what it got came very clearly my consultation on the results of the Social Summit was that every country developed or developing was worried about what was happening on the employment side. It was you could already feel the discontent you know that it was around and that Michel had to confront in terms of the globalization process. So what happened is that coming here we took the traditional work off of the ILO around rights social protections Social Dialogue et cetera. But we put it in a much more global context of saying look we have to distinguish between the cost.
Speaker [00:12:52] Work and the value of work.
Speaker [00:12:55] And this was simply a way of proceeding on the basis of that work is not a commodity. So we said look work cannot be simply a cost of production. Okay. If it's not a cost of production what more is it. And that's what decent work explained. It's a sort of it's a source of personal dignity. We prove ourselves in work. It is a present. It's an essential part of our of our being decent work is a source of family stability or whichever way people choose to to live together. It's a source of peace in the community because the community at work is a community much more peaceful and much more secure. And probably the most important one to explain some of the things that are happening today. The worker is a citizen.
Speaker [00:13:42] The worker looks at its own work but draws political conclusions and those political conclusions express themselves not necessarily in the space of labour but in the space of society. And you can already sense that there was an enormous reaction against what was happening at the end. In the space of the world of work. So the decent work agenda stems from there. And it somehow touched a nerve in the sense that people felt that this explanation of the societal impact of work was very essential and that it wasn't just you know the rights and the things that the ILO is about. But it was also the implications of work in society that went much beyond that. And I think that that was the that's the way it came. It came around but it was very much linked to the Social Summit because that's where I got the feeling of what was you know of the employment preoccupation in the world.
Speaker [00:14:39] Thank you very much. And you know it's very interesting both listening to you and just looking at the images that are coming up on the screen which bring back at least for me very many memories. I said you're on Michelle I think of all of the images of the history of the ILO. The one I like most is a view bringing Nelson Mandela into this very chamber. I'm one of the most emotional moments I think of the ILO's history. There's a great one point of view with President Clinton I remember that day very well. But here's the thought that comes to my mind looking at these images and listening to you both. There are some things but not very many that I think with the ILO can consider that we have contributed to a definitive solution to I think of the fight against apartheid and President Mandela's visit was the moment when we could begin to celebrate the defeat of apartheid.
Speaker [00:15:34] I would add as well that we are on the brink at this conference of celebrating for the first time the universal ratification of an ILO Convention I think we still won ratification short of universal ratification of conventional 182 against the worst forms of child labour. A great moment you'll agree. But otherwise. The issues that you've raised Michelle you talked about the debate that began on trade and labour standards. The creation of the World Trade Organization a debate that is still going forward. The whole issue of coherence in the international multilateral system. I wonder if looking back at it you think you know do we face exactly the same issues that you had to deal with in question of trade and labour standards a question of justice and balance in the sustainability of globalization. Do you think that these discussions have evolved positively since your mandate. And if you have any helpful advice to me this start to general be extremely grateful for it. About how we might move forward. I know you didn't want me to ask that question Michel.
Speaker [00:16:51] What do you think.
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Speaker [00:21:26] Let's go back. You've mentioned your role and in a sense a seminal role of the World Summit for Social Development. And of course you came into this debate on globalization at a time I think when there was that early generation of contestation of globalization it was a Porto Alegre Davos she is. The ILO was much involved. You personally were much involved in that and of course you put in place the World Commission on the social dimension of globalization. How do you see the debate on globalization also with your particular perspective of the ILO's only director general from the director general from the developing world. How do you see that having developed and where do you suspect we're going next.
Speaker [00:22:11] Well let me let me pick the going next because what we now have as a framework is the fact that we are moving towards sustainable development and something inevitable that climate change is an essential part of what future policies are going to be. That a technological processes that brings artificial intelligence to my station digital economy is going to change the manner in which the economy works also with lots of implications for workers and for employers. If you look at it from that perspective the first thing that I have to say is that I have to congratulate you for the manner in which the ILO was able to negotiate the presence of ILO issues in the 2030 Agenda. The decent work is at the core of the of the agenda social protection floors of social protection is their reference to the Global Jobs Pact as a response to the crisis is there. And in general the ILO has a space with its own identity and ILO that is tripartite that has workers and employers which is or give us always a different a different dimension. What does it mean for us that these are not easy questions. The 2030 Agenda tells us that we have to integrate the social economic and environmental and integrating these three issues. What is the complexity that we have a habit of thinking sectorial. We're educated sector really we're organized sector really. We. We do sectorial cooperation but integration is a different matter. How do you deal with those three dimensions are without culture in a in a in a relevant manner. This implies that we have to take a look at the models of growth. Just at lunch today we were discussing this with. Of that that we have the the the challenge of being able to discuss at the same time quality growth which means sustainable growth and quality work. Which means decent work. And these things have to go together and they go together because the eighth objective of the of the 2030 Agenda put growth and decent work together. That is a totally a new space a new global space to understand the ILO. We have always been put as a as a question as a social question and suddenly we appear as part of the matter of the economy has to organize itself. What does all of this have to do with globalization. That it began with what Michelle Hanson was mentioning but it continued in our time with the with the clearly growing discontent that globalization was in distributing Well the benefits and we finally approved a declaration on social justice for the fair for a fair globalization and that has continued. And the essence of the whole thing is that the growth models continue to be old growth models. Today the King said something which I find extremely important he said look forget about the growth models that we've been using up to today. Now if we are to have a new vision of growth that responds to a sustainable vision and to the technological changes that are going on in response to the disquiet. Uh where do you begin. You certainly begin at home. We're not going to invent four different countries with the same solutions we have the values that we are pursuing and the objectives that this is going to be national national realities and national priorities. And if you say that moving forward in the future has this very strong national dimension it means that ILO with its triple tight characteristic can if it wishes have an enormous influence and enormous influence on how this works. Because if you look from a national reality you will want to move. From down up. And and what is it that you look if you look at your city.
Speaker [00:26:30] Well what is happening in the enterprises. You know what would happen if the different enterprises workers and employees come together and say look we share a problem of seeing how the hell do we deal with this you know sustainable development thing and all of these new technologies that can be a more common problem than that. So. So I think that what has happened with the 2030 Agenda. That's why I celebrate the way you negotiated it is that they have thrust on us an enormous opportunity to be relevant to to to utilize our mechanisms to show the importance of dialogue to show the importance of listening to the other and to finding common solutions of very complex problems. What. But we are celebrating 100 years and you can't say that we have that doesn't work. It has tensions as difficulties. You know it has a lot of things that happen but we would be crazy to believe that the ILO with its tripartite dimension and its social dialogue instruments is not called upon to play an incredible role towards the future. And I and I find that particularly attractive. I have to say that it stimulates me enormously to think about the role of the of the. Of the ILO in the future.
Speaker [00:27:52] Thank you. One.
Speaker [00:27:55] Listening to you both. You know.
Speaker [00:27:58] It's worth reflecting on the fact that we all came to the ILO from different places. Michel you came as a very distinguished very visible Minister of Labour in Belgium and you presided over some extremely important important processes of restructuring in Belgium. When you came after as you've mentioned a remarkable role in the restoration of democracy in your own country via the multilateral system your experiences and ambassador in New York and I came from a different place. So we all sort of came to this organization from from from along different roads. The question which which I asked myself and I wonder what your views are is at the time and the centenary coincides with this when everybody is talking about change at work changed because of technology change because of what we have to do to combat climate change change because of demographics the uncertain path of globalization more uncertain now than before. I guess the question many people are asking the ILO people from outside were looking at the organization from their particular perspective is now what is it that the ILO has which others do not which can help us meet the challenges of the future. The classic answers the classic answers are that the incomparable advantages of the ILO were firstly a mandate for social justice. Which I think never goes out of fashion. Tri ism are instruments of social dialogue. A normative function of Michelle you've referred to that.
Speaker [00:29:37] And yet other people would see some of these things as handicaps social dialogue is difficult. Representatives t of workers and employers organizations is questioned. It seems to me in the world it is dialogue is becoming more problematic. The question of the international rule of law the rule of international law. Is also questioned. It's an interference. In national sovereignty. So how well equipped do you see the ILO through these traditional. Advantages that it has.
Speaker [00:30:07] To face these challenges of the future. Do you think we just. Hold on to these. Instruments that we've always had. And use them very much in the ways. That we previously have. With success. Do we have to add to them. That we have to substitute. What do you think.
Speaker [00:30:27] I don't know who wants to go first if it's a.
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Speaker [00:33:04] Uh.
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Speaker [00:35:51] That's a very strong message of encouragement and confidence in our organization and the image of that truck will stay in the minds of many of us I'm sure in the future when exactly the same question How do you see it.
Speaker [00:36:06] Well I think that Michelle just made the next award in our representation of others on their path and expressed in the reaction that you had. I think that he was describing what happened in different stages. The ILO has always responded to different situations. A first director general spent about 13 years. Telling the world that we need it you know local labour conventions and he was successful. He was successful because a lot of work had been done before. Then comes the crisis. And of course in the middle of the crisis to be talking about worker's right was almost impossible.
Speaker [00:36:52] But we adapted to that too that reality came the war. We moved to Canada to be a safe place and then then come after the war. And after the war one has to remember that from 1945 till 1980 more or less the policies that were put in place were policies that created the middle classes of Europe of the United States and of Japan of the developed world of the time.
Speaker [00:37:21] And when people for people today feel that the middle classes are not moving forward because they have the remembrance of of those years. So we are going very well and they all responded to basic visions of the ILO. Then comes the 80s and suddenly the two look you know this thing Yeah it's working well and you know we've done things but we we need to change the the basic rationale and we find ourselves in what we call a neo liberal view of things that it expresses itself in politics in Reagan and Thatcher. And then yes we begin to find this globalization that we've talked about but yet we have answered we responded to this. And to be very frank to go to a debate today with somebody the defensive neo liberal view or ask that defend what the ILO is about. I can tell you you know the views of that debate on television are clearly on this side and not on the other. So something and I was Germanic because the IMF and the World Bank and others were bringing it forward certainly did not last. And when you look at what the U.N. decides that U.N. decides that decent work the job of a unit of the ILO is at the heart of how the governments are looking at the future. So I why end up exactly with the same conclusion that Michele had. We have to have complete trust in ourselves but trust in ourselves doesn't don't mean that we cannot change because change has been. A part of the whole thing. So the question then is what are the changes. You know. How is it that we. We are going to make social dialogue work. Is it the old way or there are none of our new ways. Are we going to take into account that youth we're talk about 20 to 30 are looking at the different lifestyles. The idea that you have one job or two jobs in your life is no longer does no longer exist. It first disappeared in Japan where it was sort of conceived. But it doesn't. It doesn't exist anymore. The notion that the only way in which is citizens can organize itself is a trade union is not so. Now that you have the political parties that have their own problems. But we are moving into a society in which the organized citizen is going to behave to to begin to have much more significance. And we are moving because of this. This disconnect that people are having with the institutions and with the the the elites that manage the system as they see it say look things they don't think about us. They are not responding to what we need. There are different languages in that and we have to be able to be sensitive to that. This that the changes in society are so profound that unless we are able to look at it and say okay this is certainly not the same society of 20 25 years ago. So where do we fit with our values. And that I believe that that is the most important challenge we have in front of us and I absolutely certain that we're perfectly capable of responding it. But it supposes that today we cannot be to have a worker. Employer relationship of the old style. That style is out. And if you tried to repeat that style would you certainly going to do is that we as an institution are going to work if you decide to say no there is a style that has to do with thinking together about problems that not depend on hitting on the other or kicking the other. It depends I'm thinking together and being able to look together towards the future. That's our future. It's dialogue among ourselves working well together.
Speaker [00:41:24] Thank you very much why I always remember what you used to say about constructive tri partisan envy you used to talk about that a great deal. Very very quickly because I want to bring in our other guests.
Speaker [00:41:37] After these strong messages of confidence in the organization and indeed encouraging all of us to have confidence in the organization. Just one more point. We can cover it quite quickly in over these hundred years the ILO has grown from being an organization formed by what 40 some 40 organizations to quite a universal membership 187 member states and quite naturally and in different ways at different times of its history. This has posed the organization with the challenge of being able to respond effectively equitably to working life and working conditions in all possible scenario from the least developed countries to the most highly industrialized countries. And I have heard very often the question of well how on earth can an organization such as yours with its normative mandate how can you really address this extraordinary diversity of realities. Do you think that this is a challenge to the organization or or one that we need to think more about. We talk a great deal about the challenge of informality at work. You know what fairly one normative framework when some 60 percent of workers are still working in informality. Do you feel that this challenge of universal relevance and universal representativeness of our member states in the ILO is something that we need to give further attention to and I I take advantage of the fact we have one director general from Chile and one from Belgium and perhaps I'll start with you because you've got the developing country perspective in all of this. Do you think that the universality of ILO's membership which is by definition an advantage something we need to think through a bit more. And of course Michelle made a great breakthrough in his mandate when you actually brought the ILO closer to the service of its constituents by making our technical cooperation operations much more dispersed around the world something we need to think about some more.
Speaker [00:43:43] No I think that our universality is an enormous strength universality and means that we have common goals but we can defined individually or regionally or subregional in the manner we go about it. And I think that that's a big change development cooperation began because there were developed countries are developing countries and developed countries came around and say look we've already done it. Let me explain to you how it's done. And at the beginning we accepted that that way by today it is evident that the developing world has a capacity to define its own priorities and its own objectives. So yes we have the 2030 Agenda. We have common goals but we have to work in the context of each one of our realities. As I was saying before but in order to do that we don't only have to make dialogue function that social dialogue function and we need to develop the capacity of societal dialogue that goes beyond not in terms of the internal way in which the ILO works but the manner in which we project our social dialogue in total societies because we've done it. We know how to do it. Let's let's be useful for societies to discuss this incredible difficult to say well what does sustainable development mean. What are the key things that we need to answer in terms of of climate change. What are we going to do with the new technologies. We can't just say look get some expert there to see how we solve it. You know it has to stem from society. Among other things because if we're going to move forward we need personal consciousness of what it means to move into a sustainable world.
Speaker [00:45:22] And this means you know our own our own conduct. From you know washing your teeth and letting water run.
Speaker [00:45:32] Do whatever you do with with the banks which you you you have when you go and buy something. It is very much about personal conduct. If. Tomorrow the 2000 delegates that came to this meeting said Look from now on what I'm going to have 10 ideas of how is it that I can help move towards a sustainable development vision. Can you imagine the consciousness that would emerge when the citizen begins to take the decision to do it on its own. Because you believe and you're convinced that you have to move in that direction. And I think that that's the sort of thing that we have to think as I know. You know we should now be with our system but also at the service of citizenship so that so that the people in our countries see that this the the norms that we have the manners of working that we have you know are an essential part of what the countries need in order to agree. This doesn't mean that you eliminate government and the role that they play their role. But if you only have that and you have a society that is absent is not thinking about these types of changes you know the movement is going to very big it cannot be very slow. If on the contrary you have any society that is increasingly conscious because of our own conduct but also because you analyze it at the at the at the local level within your community within your city et cetera you know that may signify an enormous change in the manner we can move forward. That is totally new. Well societies don't work that way. And I believe that the ILO has the potential of stimulating that that sort of reaction.
Speaker [00:47:16] Thank you. Michel. Any reflections on the same challenge of universality.
Speaker [00:47:22] We set out our fire our challenge. We sit on mentor cortisol. You really feel tall dippy on D.C. did a fifth party with the worldwide organization at our national duty. I think it is on automatic calico shows you don't want to you will see on network show it is all this I thought are not trigger happy I do shows Cantone seemed to appreciate the diversity the CTA assumed the DP Yeah do shows to kill Kim pass kill Dwight Howard Ortiz didn't pass in the fullback conceded he could not secure this space the rooks Bobby Rush support what they call crucial default our mortal men see it in the Putney says they do appreciate two more to they are not so now do not move the egg rookie so keep order. The WG To assume I perceive that you may Amen. LA court TV show could you prove your poverty will sector formal and need you to develop more dwarf it if he normal girl. No no no. News of this attack she knew some pineapple fare du Lac perhaps Picasso would have looked more to us image or not all but two new countries all view the totality of the totality. The problem to be all development or beauty see the poverty declared on this yonder this year are lucky chefs. Good news for evacuees yet experienced good have worked this out for petty theft and nobody's eco tribute. Ah the dude whose organization. Our national grid. How I would develop more new novel Power Vocus your eye toward a nude new novel by in vacation. I leave National's unique news on one book assume I took part in a NASA stem complex all news up of tornadoes expected peace in our capital.
Speaker [00:49:20] Thank you very much. Let's now bring into the conversation our social partner representatives the two personalities I introduced at the beginning of this conversation and who have played such an important role in the history of our organization. I don't know who wants to go first. I've learned as director general never to ask one to go before the other I let them decide. So Danielle for the employers or Sir Roy for the workers and simply the question is what does this conversation and inspiring you and your reflections on on our organization.
Speaker [00:50:04] Good to save you. First let me just say to start in English but just to recognize something here. My left is not only my colleague my counterpart but also my friend. During many years we worked together with mutual respect Paramount and dialogue.
Speaker [00:50:28] Even with many difficulties because he said it's normal and constructive cooperation and I am very satisfied with that because I think that is the key. This is tripartite This is social dialogue and social dialogue could be couldn't we build up just with government or with one pilot. If not working together and we did it we did with it. And that's the reason by which my all my respect to Sarai Leroy my friend let me turn to his findings to say just a few words we can not call.
Speaker [00:51:07] Those inspectors. In of train Daniels can see the men's urinals. Poor Michelle on Sandy poor or maybe. E in our eyes. Who me those poor guy. When a party's electoral Technica.
Speaker [00:51:28] Lucky tectonics. There's a punto it's an automatic evil that digital Punto the Evita they eat are the one or after that functionality that adequately the consequent means last. On a conference here it will will candle. Look look at this. Lots of partials like normals. Cuban. There's a lot of that I shouldn't know into your true pattern of sort of fundamental global commercial global. Enormous. You wrap it up in people's you know often Domain Tennis Centre. Foreman CNN for former synthesis. No boy then sir the old Terminator. Inclusion upon the conditions common global job pact Carlucci Moss Ben Sander and Kerry Packer responded in for real. I will not criticize you impact e-mail yet. I mean and wonder whether a part of their yellow powder as we wrap party Speaker LA a bigger moist circle and writer of course on his way to commercial means you are now in a castle they by Lisa is here because well apartheid you South Africa excluded that audience has anybody in the audience as shown in a castle the Lech Walesa a NATO conference here recalled our experience in Myanmar. Eat eat and toss ultras happy soldiers kid no day when they'll see the victor and lacking that loyalty. Poor on law the communist. Look can leave you. Reaction for India allow your last show on this operatic communist portmanteau. Joe a senior source is the full on this all those elementals law architect Tony got you to go now kickin it a pickle he did not sit here it all we did it's in there now.
Speaker [00:53:21] Thank you very much Daniel. So Roy would you like to follow on. Thank you very much Director General and. Good afternoon to.
Speaker [00:53:36] All of you distinguish participants even if you do not speak. I'll say something about what Daniels spoke to earlier. But I've said towards the end. Right now I would wish to make two or three very sharp comments hopeful that I can say some. Much more than that later. The first thing I would say is that in relation to the very positive suggestions made by directors and directors some of air and Hansen as they look towards what we can expect from the ILO I would wish to say that Geneva is good and is a good starting place in that it endeavours to treat with the matter of Tripathi ism and endeavours to bring together ideas of divergent areas and divergent opinions. But I would wish to say that. Perhaps we are making two errors. One is in believing that because we find that it is satisfactory here in Geneva and because we think it works here that the sometimes the level of the leadership the trade union be an employer or be at government and or officials we make the era of believing that it automatically will work in our constituent assemblies in our individual nations and that could be a major problem and I would wish to say that there has to be a much more vibrant tripartite social. Dialoguing. My language tripartite that must expand outwards and downwards. I think that many times the tripartite bodies come to Geneva and they report in that five minute period regarding beautiful things that they they are doing. And I have this suspicion and I hope you don't criticize the decency of my thought. I sometimes get the impression that we are trying to preach to ourselves to convince ourselves regarding just how good we were during the preceding year and what we need instead is to have that report of social dialoguing which reaches out. To the shop floor. Reaches out to the small business man within the larger business community in such a way that when we come back and report. To the officials of the Ayalon or to. This conference that we are truly reflecting what is happening to humankind at the national level. I think there may be a problem in that we are not doing that.
Speaker [00:56:47] If we were to do that I would think that we would reach the stage where we would not necessarily consider that when we yield space or yield time or be yield a point to another person. That we can only do so. Because that person is bigger or stronger than we are. We have to remember and to recognize that in the global community where we exist. The size that you may think you have is not going to be the final judge of where the end a debate. You don't have to have a major axe to cut down on a small tree. And if you keep forcing people to follow what you want simply because you're bigger or your economy is greater than you might be making your country great. Now or again.
Speaker [00:57:50] But the reality is that you may be bringing about stages of poverty and worse than that stages of undress and disquiet. Which leads me to the third point I would make very quickly is that we have to recognize that notwithstanding the work of the ILO that there is a level of this quiet.
Speaker [00:58:15] Which is. Perpetuating itself every time you get results from a national political election.
Speaker [00:58:25] Extremism is becoming the order of the day and it must be the workers who are part of that because the workers who are the majority in any voting electorate. Something is fundamentally wrong that people who have. Grown up under different ideals and who have different examples that they are driven by are loving themselves and are perpetuating the view that a new system a more extreme system is perhaps better than what is the current system and perhaps the question that I owe the ILO itself has to be looking at is to what extent are we as the people who treat in the world of work. To what extent are we involve in this question of war.
Speaker [00:59:21] And peace and social justice.
Speaker [00:59:25] Thank you. Sorry for those challenging comments. Now this is I think been a really extraordinary conversation but some of you probably have noticed two slight defects in the in the conversation so far. One is it was demonstrated in the most obvious way the rather masculine nature of the past leadership of the organization and its tripartite constituents. No need to hide Mr Hun Sen It's okay. And secondly probably if we added up the combined age of the participants it would come to a considerable multiple of the hundred year old history of the ILO and we need to rectify these two slight imbalances and we intend to do so by inviting two very important people at the ILO to join in the conversation. The two young women who have joined the platform. Can I ask you to greet them and to welcome them. They are the two co-chairs of the intern board. This is the people who represent the young people who come to the ILO to get work experience and to contribute and very importantly to the work of the organization we're proud of that and we take our intern program very very seriously and simply I would like to ask both of them. Their names are Carla Cannon a parent JP. Excuse me if I get that's right you're wrong you're from India and a Czech cattleman from Turkey and in the order that you please I'd love your reflections on the conversation that you've heard and you have the floor.
Speaker [01:01:07] Thank you. Good afternoon everyone. We would like to begin by thanking everyone for giving us this opportunity to present our thoughts on how the future of work looks like the last two weeks of the ILC. Actually the last few months. Have been at a low having race Kerry and eye opening at the same time. We have had the chance to hear about the current debates on technology climate change and jobs and skills for the future. There have been discussions around the challenges that we face the uncertainties of the future and the ways in which these challenges can be turned into opportunities. The skills and training that the young people should be provided with in order to be ready for the kinds of jobs that will exist in the future. They have made us ponder and think about our life till now the kind of life we want and the one that we are living in the present. For a hundred years now I alone has been constantly striving to deliver social justice. Some say you need to understand your past to be able to catch your future. Thus this this session is about the past but also about the present and the future. Today millions of young people are entering the workforce every day. They're looking for jobs that match their skills education the qualifications and aspirations. These young people are looking for a job now and the need to get a job is no longer an activity we can push to next week or month or year after reading hundreds of articles and watching too many TED talks. One thing has become clear to us. We need to adapt and like a tech chess player. Think about what moved the job market will make. As millions of people. Will be looking for dumps we wonder whether there will be millions of decent jobs waiting for us out there. We're optimistic people and we hope these jobs exist but are they the jobs that we are inspired to do. Our data dumps that fit our skills and education. We know that the future is always uncertain and the world of work is changing with uncertainties.
Speaker [01:03:29] Today you're looking at two individuals. Today you're looking at two individuals two individuals who are soon going to finish their internship in a month's time and are ready to take on the challenges and uncertainties that our future will certainly bring. As you just said we are optimistic optimistic about our future and not just about the future of work. Optimistic enough to imagine a world where a woman becomes the next director general of the ILO. A world where people talk about climate change seriously and a world where sustainable development is the new but we're hoping and not just hoping. We strongly believe that the future will bring gender equality for everyone where people don't have to come out on the streets and try to convince governments that maternity and paternity leave and equal wages are rights. But things like not having social protection are not a normalized aspect of our lives. A world where all types of unpaid work in the name of gaining experience are not many people's realities. A world where both right to social security and right to health are provided equally by the stakeholders as part of human rights. We're looking for places where we can actually make a difference. Over the last six months of being an intern at the ILO we have witnessed ILO's efforts in the areas of social protection diminishing inequalities at work lifelong learning continuing education and culture of prevention and much more. But grateful to all the people who are pleasant here who all have been and are tirelessly working towards a better world. During this conference and throughout the hundred years. But aware that it has been a struggle to bring these issues to the light. And we know that everyone in and out of this room will continue to do their best for the future. But at the same time we're wondering are we actually ready for this future even after two weeks and six months. Will we be alone in the struggle to find our way or will our policies have provided us protection that will support our efforts. How will organizations like the ILO support us in this new world of work. There are challenges. And then there are fears that is and will be a constant need to reinvent ourselves and constant fear that the skills we learn could become redundant even in the next 10 years. There's frustration about not speaking four languages about not having the time or the energy or the money to keep on learning new skills in online courses. Even when we haven't had the chance to use the ones we actually possess at the moment. But we continue to look towards the future with a lot of belief and hope the belief that we will find a perfect savings of jobs and not just one. And face this challenge together and we're counting on you the ILO to support us through this challenge.
Speaker [01:06:58] Well thanks to both of you. For those those great interventions I think you've done exactly the job that we asked you to do. Not easy to follow on those interventions but we've got a few minutes left and I would like to ask Michelle first and then when if you have any closing comments or reflections. Michelle you haven't. It is a difficult act to follow I sympathize with you. Quite you have to be you have to say you have to help us all here.
Speaker [01:07:24] With the microphone.
Speaker [01:07:26] I'm going to say something completely banal to our interns. When I write with the ILO interns when I paid.
Speaker [01:07:36] And the fact that you paid two days of policy that I put in place and has continued up to now. No I I think I'll pick up on something that Roy said.
Speaker [01:07:54] The state of the world.
Speaker [01:07:56] And we have to acknowledge that we're being told some time by powerful countries that you know you do what I want to do. No you're going to be punished. Mexico has just been told that they better change their migration laws or else the terrorists are going to go up.
Speaker [01:08:14] And I have to be very honest. I'm in Latin America the way in which. The people of Mexico and the people of Central America are referred to is a total lack of respect for Latin America. This is completely new unacceptable. But get a reality of power. So I just want to give that example saying this The implication of this for the functioning of the multilateral system is enormous and we as ILO because we are tripartite not because you watch just government but because we are tripartite we have the obligation to make it work. And then the obligation to make sure that we protect multilateralism that is absolutely absolutely essential. We know that others prefer unilateralism. Because when things are unilateral the most powerful one always wins. So it's essential that we defend that. But in order to defend that we have to be able to be together. We have to be able to understand the value of social dialogue. The essential value the contribution that it gives to society. And my by conviction and my feeling. Is that we gonna be able to do that. And I have to but part of my conviction part by necessity part by they believe that we can actually do it. But let me finish with something that I feel very strongly. I have not had you know a background in the ILO matters when I arrived at the ILO. So much so that I asked the predecessor of Mr. Hun Sen Moses Blah Schaaf during my campaign in the first years of my tenure here to say look to help you understand this type of autism Help me understand what it's about etc. I've been I've been in another part of the multilateral system and that was extremely useful for me. But I have to tell you when I left the ILO because the personal reasons with which we parted we decided with our wife to go a little bit before my third term ended because we needed to go back to Chile. I said that I had fallen in love with this organization. You know it's such is the respect I have for it. The belief of what we represent the specific the unique contribution that it makes during this hundred years is something absolutely extraordinary. And so I can't finish without saying that that because I have these feelings in me. It's what keeps you going and keeps you going Why. Because the ILO will always be swimming against the current because we stand for values that are difficult to have implemented that we stand for things that we believe in. We live in a world that with great beliefs are not there. We're being told that we have to be cynics rather than believers and I absolutely reject the notion that through cynicism or through strength we're going to get the world a better one. So we go on and we do it when.
Speaker [01:11:34] Thank you. One way we are going to the end of the time available to us a couple of very quick reflections on what I've heard anyway what I've heard from both of my predecessors as director general from the social part the benches and then from the interns as well. A tremendous message of confidence in this organization. Confidence I think and self belief if I can put it like that that comes from two things. One is our adhesion to values. It's a choice. We believe in this mandate of social justice. And secondly the record of achievement over 100 years. This wild dream as it was initially phrased actually produces results. It works and we have as Michelle has said we have the tools to hand to continue to produce positive results. But that confidence in itself for self belief should not be on reflecting and this is what we've heard from from from from zero in particular. We do need to think about what we do and how we do it. There does need to have to be self reflection and an examination in what we do. This is not an organization which stands still and certainly not in times of such extraordinary change as we are living right now. I think we've heard from our two intern representatives some very powerful messages about what you expect from the organization in the future. I think it's very much consonant with what we've been hearing from other participants. But it's absolutely a reminder of the tasks that lie ahead and the responsibilities that we all share. So thank you for that. Ladies and gentlemen it does. Thank you. Ladies and gentlemen this has been a session which has been I think one of the successes of an extraordinarily successful conference. It's been for me at least very very moving to share a platform with two people who preceded me in the job that I now do and to people who I knew from different angles when I was either one of the constituents Mr. Johnson or working in a cabin a few one. So it's been great to have you both here. Our conference. I think we would all agree would not have been complete had we not had this session. And to make it absolutely complete. Let me thank all of you. This hall is very full full of delegates to the conference full of colleagues working in the secretariat full of colleagues who have previously served this organization. And I think coming together in this way is a remarkable moment in the conference and again an expression of our self belief our confidence and our collective purpose. So to all who have participated this afternoon thank you very much indeed. Thank you. Applause.
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